A comprehensive guide to lithium ion battery storage
- Why should we care about lithium ion battery storage? Are Lithium battery safe?
- How should lithium ion batteries be stored?
- Do lithium ion batteries degrade in storage?
- The condition for proper lithium ion battery storage
- Lithium battery storage measures for companies and users: bulk storage and individual storage
- FAQs about lithium ion battery storage
- What should be avoided when storing lithium battery?
1. Why should we care about lithium ion battery storage? Are Lithium battery safe?Sometimes, lithium ion batteries can be overheated. But it won’t happen if battery is charged at correct condition, maintained properly and stored in safe environment. For storing, below points should be taken care of;
- Impact damage
- Check battery charging status.
- Make sure that specific temperature is set on temperature controls.
- Check total run time of battery that is fully charged.
- Keep batteries safe from high vibrations.
- Place batteries after specific temperature reaches in the cabinet.
2. How should lithium ion batteries be stored?
1. lithium ion battery storage for long termFor this case, recommended temperature for lithium ion battery storage is normally 20-25 degree Celsius. For battery maintenance and good performance, there is requirement for cycle of charging and discharging after every three months. The power supply is best kept at 40-60%.
2. lithium ion battery storage for regular useFor daily use, you need to keep the power at 20-80%, do not overcharge. Stay away from the higher temperatures.
3. Do lithium ion batteries degrade in storage?In lithium ion batteries, there is a possibility that they can lose 3.5 percent charge in a month. It is called self-discharge.It is normal because all batteries self-discharge and li-ion batteries are the ones with the lowest self-discharge rates. It can be improved by controlling temperature and better battery design. If storage temperature is high, self-discharge will be more prominent. All lithium-ion and other type of batteries self-discharge to some extent but lithium-ion batteries self-discharge to the lowest rate. Normally, lithium-ion batteries self-discharge 5-8 percent in first month and then self-discharge is reduced to 2 percent in next months. Nickel cadmium batteries self-discharge to maximum 25 percent per month. Ni/Cd battery loses its charging very fast. Lead-acid battery can lose 50% of its initial charge at 30 degrees Celsius in 3-4 months. For Ni/Cd battery, it would take around 1-2 months to lose 50% of its initial charge at 30 degrees Celsius. For lithium-ion battery, rate of self-discharge is normally 3.5 percent per month.
4. The condition for proper lithium ion battery storage
1. Battery condition: Can we store lithium batteries fully charged?No. Storing the battery after it cannot be fully charged. It should be charged to 40%-60% and placed in a dry place with volume and charge it every three months.
2. Temperature condition: How do you store lithium batteries at hot/cold condition?Batteries should not be stored in extreme temperature environment. The working temperature of lithium batteries is -20-60°C, and the most suitable temperature for survival is 20-25°C. They should be kept away from the sun.
3. The best place for lithium battery storage: Can lithium batteries be stored in garage?No, they’d better be kept in specially designed cabinet. These cabinets have;
- A fire obstacle to stop battery from igniting
- Safety from impact damage
- Non-flammable surfaces
- Improve the reliability of the entire power distribution system
5. Lithium battery storage measures for companies and users: bulk storage and individual storage
1. Battery storage measures for companies
- There should be separate lithium ion battery storage places in specific area. “No Fire-Catching Items” sign boards should be placed in battery storage areas.
- Temperature of lithium ion battery storage places is around 15-25 degree Celsius. Relative humidity should be within 40-95%.
- There should be smoke sensor and temperature sensor alarms in storage place.
- Batteries placement should be neat in lithium ion battery storage places.
- There should be self-activating sprinkler in lithium ion battery storage area.
- Useless battery should be placed in separate area after discharging it.
- Every lithium ion battery storage area should not be greater than 250 meters square.
2. Battery storage measures for daily users
- To stop squeezing and damaging the battery, lithium ion battery storage area should notice stacking problem.
- It is strictly not allowed to keep the battery at extreme temperatures in lithium ion battery storage area. It may lead battery to overheating and make its lifespan smaller.
- It is prohibited to keep battery in the presence of high magnetic flux density. It will badly affect battery safety components.
- If there is any abnormal behavior in battery after use or storage, cut off battery connection from device and immobilize it.
6. FAQs about lithium ion battery storage
1. Should you remove battery from the device when not in use for long time?Yes. When a device is closed down, small level of current flows in it. This current can destroy the battery in a long run.Sometimes, it can damage device also.
2. How long do lithium ion batteries last in storage?If you use 40-60% of the power and a monthly discharge rate of 3.5%, the lithium battery can last about 11-17 months, and it needs to be charged after this time period. However, it is still recommended to charge it every three months, and be careful not to store it to 100% discharge.
3. Can batteries be stored touching each other?One battery pole should not be in contact with other battery pole. So if you must stack it, it should be separated from each other. It is prohibited to place heavy things on the upper side of batteries. One type of battery should be placed separate from other type of battery.
7. What should be avoided when storing lithium battery?
- One type of battery should not be placed together with other type of battery.
- Battery should be stored away from light of sun and kept in controlled temperature and humidity.
- There are specially designed storage cabinets for battery, that are available in the market.