Knowledge and guideline of battery capacity
- Definition of battery capacity
- Terms related to battery capacity
- Battery capacity test
- How much battery capacity is Okay? How do I know what battery capacity I need?
- Checking a battery’s capacity
- Factors affecting battery capacity
- How does battery capacity affect the performance of the battery?
- Techniques for maintaining battery capacity
- Causes of low battery capacity
- What is the highest battery cell capacity?
- How long will a 100Ah battery last?
Batteries are necessity in different application scenarios thanks to their capability to power devices. Battery capacity is essential in determining the running time of a device. Learning more about battery capacity is mandatory to avoid sudden shutdown of a device. This post provides a useful guide on battery capacity.
Definition of battery capacity
It is the amount of energy produced in a battery after electrochemical processes.
Its standard unit of measurement is Ampere-hours (Ah). Battery capacity is important because it determines the time a device can continue operating on a single charge.
The higher the battery’s capacity, the longer a battery lasts without requiring recharging.
Terms related to battery capacity
Various terms related to battery capacity include:
- Rated capacity– The battery capacity specified by the manufacturer for an electrical equipment under specified operating conditions. Each battery contains a capacity rating indicated by its manufacturer.
- Nominal capacity– It is a battery’s total charge under specific load and temperature conditions. The manufacturer usually writes it on a battery.
- Current– It results from electrons flowing from the battery’s negative terminal to the positive one. Current is measured in Amperes (A).
- DOD– DOD initials stand for Depth of Discharge.DOD refers to the proportion of the actual capacity of the current battery to the nominal capacity. The number of cycles of a battery is premised on DOD. A brand new lithium battery cycle life is up to 4000 times, which means that it can cycle 4000 times before the DOD drops to 80%. When the DOD drops to 80%, the battery can be regarded as scrapped.
- SOC– SOC stands for the State of Charge, which indicates the amount of charge remaining in a particular battery. It also implies current remaining electricity.
- Ah– Ah stands for Ampere hour, the standard unit for measuring a battery’s capacity. Ampere hour is the energy that allows a current of one Ampere to flow in an hour.
- Ampere (A)- Ampere is the standard unit for measuring a battery’s current. An electronic device known as an ammeter is used while measuring current.
- Kwh– Kwh stands for Kilowatt hour. It is a unit measuring kilowatts of energy consumed in an hour. One kilowatt is equivalent to 1,000 watts.
Battery capacity test
It is a test carried out to determine battery capacity. Appropriate battery capacity testing is essential as it helps check a battery’s health. The test is performed by discharging the battery until a discharge termination voltage is achieved. At the factory, capacity tests are performed after battery production to ensure specifications are met as it helps ensure the battery contains enough charge to power devices.
Additionally, it helps discover a battery’s weak cells and if replacement is needed. Before conducting the test, ensure that the battery is not connected to a charger and that the cell conditions are in proper working condition.
How much battery capacity is Okay? How do I know what battery capacity I need?
One needs battery capacity depending on various factors, including battery type, device type, and what one uses the device for. Here is an article of lithium ion battery types for you to read. Batteries of different types and materials, the higher the capacity, the longer the usable time. For batteries of the same material, the larger the volume, the higher the capacity. The capacity of a single cell of a lithium-ion battery can reach 5000mAh.
If one is using a device to perform activities that consume more power, like energy storage system or power tools, use a high battery capacity.
Checking a battery’s capacity
Units for measuring battery capacity is Ah. To check the capacity of a given battery, begin by charging it fully, followed by the discharge process until a specific voltage is achieved. Ensure that during the process, a constant current is maintained. To get the battery capacity, multiply the current with the discharge time.
Factors affecting battery capacity
Various factors that affect the capacity of a battery include;
- Battery type-Battery capacity varies among various batteries. Some battery types have a higher battery capacity than others.Lithium battery has high capacity.
- Battery’s life– As the battery gets old, its capacity reduces. A brand-new battery will have a high capacity than a two-year-old battery.
- Discharge rate– Discharge rate refers to the speed at which power is drawn from a battery. If the battery’s discharge rate is often higher than normal, the capacity will fade.
- Electrode surface– Batteries with a large electrode surface have a high capacity compared to the ones with a low electrode surface because crystals on the surface of the plate are added.
- Electrolyte strength– Electrolyte facilitates the free movement of ions from one node to the other. A low electrolyte amount results in a reduced speed at which ions flow, reducing battery capacity. Additionally, an electrolyte that does not facilitate the free movement of ions due to its poor conductive nature reduces battery capacity.
- Battery temperature– An increase in temperature increases the battery capacity. However, high temperatures affect the battery. Therefore, avoid exposing the battery to extreme temperatures. The most suitable temperature is 20-25℃.
- A battery’s recharge cycle– A battery with many recharge cycles has low capacity than a battery with few recharge cycles.
How does battery capacity affect the performance of the battery?
Battery capacity is the energy that results after a battery’s chemical reactions. Battery capacity affects a battery’s performance by determining the time a battery can power a device. A battery with a high capacity provides power to a given device for a longer time than one with a low capacity.
Techniques for maintaining battery capacity
To maintain a battery capacity, carry out the following;
- Keep the battery in a suitable environment- Extreme temperatures reduce battery capacity. As a result, keep the battery in a room environment.
- Make sure the battery level is in the proper range. Don’t be full.
- Avoiding overcharging the battery.Furthermore, it occurs if the charger specifications do not match the battery’s specifications.
- Clean the battery to remove dirt that may build up on the battery’s terminals. This type of maintenance is only required for lead-acid batteries. Lithium-ion batteries are sealed and do not require cleaning
- Check the battery installation and appearance for any questions.
Causes of low battery capacity
The following factors lead to low battery capacity;
- Age– As a battery continues to age, its capacity reduces.
- Battery overuse or no use– Frequent charging and discharging of a battery reduces its capacity with time. Long-term storage can cause self-discharge and cause insufficient capacity.
- Extreme temperatures– High temperatures can destroy the battery’s structure, leading to low capacity.
- Overcharging– Overcharging damages the cells of the battery hence reducing its capacity.
- Corrosion– Corrosion may build up on the battery’s terminals reduce the battery’s capability to provide power.
What is the highest battery cell capacity?
Battery cell capacity depends on the total energy a battery cell can supply in a given time. Lithium-ion batteries have a capacity ranging from 2.5 Ah to 3.1Ah. However, the lithium battery with the highest cell capacity is 5 Ah.
How long will a 100Ah battery last?
100 Ah batteries can be used in solar or marine system. While powering a device with a power of 10 kw, a 12v 100ah battery can long for 120 hours. On the other hand, if the device the battery is powering is 2, 000W, the battery can last for 36 minutes. The running time of a battery is calculated by capacity multiplied by voltage divided by power.
A well-functioning battery is mandatory for devices and equipment use. Battery capacity greatly affects how much time a battery can power a device. To ensure that the battery capacity is well maintained, keep the battery in a warm environment and avoid overcharging.