Usage and application scenarios of solid-state batteries
Human civilization continues to progress, and the application of energy is also constantly improving, developing in a safer and more efficient direction. At present, energy applications are constantly transitioning from fossil energy to green energy.
Most energy storage systems use lithium-ion batteries, which have a high energy density and faster charging speed. However, there are also some problems like safety and its energy density and other indicators cannot fully meet current needs.
Therefore, the new energy industry is actively developing solid-state batteries, expecting them to gradually improve and form a beneficial supplement or even replacement for traditional lithium-ion batteries.
Intensive attention to the market
Solid-state battery technology, by replacing the electrolyte with a solid electrolyte, not only increases the energy density to over 1000 Wh/L, but also greatly improves the low-temperature discharge performance and safety performance.
In the laboratory, solid state battery has more than 20% better discharge performance than ordinary batteries at -20°C. In addition, the ability of solid-state batteries to resist needle penetration has improved by leaps and bounds.
In February this year, the pure electric SERES-5, equipped with a Ganfeng lithium ternary solid-liquid hybrid lithium-ion battery, is scheduled to be launched in 2023.
Seres has officially stated that the 90 kWh semi-solid battery on the new car has a maximum cruising range of 530 km. The NIO ET7 with 150 kWh semi-solid-state battery will be launched in the first half of this year.
Recently, the semi-solid battery developed by Gotion is based on the advantages of high safety and high performance, and the battery energy density of the monomer can reach 360Wh/kg.
Compared to today’s liquid electrolyte lithium-ion batteries, all-solid-state batteries will cost 50% less, have higher energy density, and can provide charging speeds up to 3 times faster than today’s batteries.
Nissan plans to establish and operate a pilot production plant for all-solid-state batteries in 2025 to gradually achieve mass production. By 2023, solid state battery will be mass-produced and put on the market.
The accelerated development of battery industrialization
Incentives for new energy and battery technologies continue to improve. Also the application of new technologies and models, and the improvement of policies, standards and regulations.
In improving the support system for the comprehensive electrification of vehicles in the public sector, promoting the promotion of new energy vehicles, infrastructure construction.
With the continuous attention and investment of countries and enterprises in the field of research and development of new generation power batteries, it is expected that power batteries will accelerate the development of safe, green and intelligent batteries in the future.
Advantages of battery development
Based on the advantages of safety and energy density, solid state lithium ion battery have become an important path for the development of lithium batteries in the future. In the future, with the continuous breakthrough of technology, the growth curve of the industry will grow exponentially.
● Commercialized turning point
From 2024 to 2025, semi-solid batteries will take the lead in ushering in a turning point in commercialization, achieving mass production or loading. Subsequently, with the further breakthrough of technology, the time for industrial application will not be too long.
● Main application scenario
Priority will be given to commercialization from high-end application markets, such as drones, medical and other fields, and gradually expand to the field of power and consumer batteries. In the long run, the main application scenarios for batteries are similar to those for liquid batteries.
Consumer electronics, energy storage and other fields are the main application scenarios of lithium batteries, including mainstream liquid batteries and solid-state batteries. Solid-state batteries will grow steadily and rapidly after breaking through the challenges of industrialization.
Hindrance to the development of lithium batteries
The popularity of the new energy market continues to rise, but the current mainstream liquid batteries have generally encountered performance hindrance.
● Existing problems
Even if the ternary lithium battery with good energy density used by mainstream car companies is limited by the upper limit of the electrolyte and the material itself, its energy density is difficult to exceed the limit of 300 Wh per kg for a liquid battery.
At present, the actual energy of commonly used anode and cathode battery materials is relatively low, and materials such as electrolytes are limited by their own material characteristics, making their safety poor.
At this stage, the electrolyte of traditional liquid batteries is flammable, which makes it susceptible to combustion when subjected to severe impact or when the battery temperature is too high, causing safety accidents such as battery fire.
● Current solution
In order to solve the current problems of lithium battery safety, energy density and fast charging, in addition to continuing to carry out technical research and process improvement on existing liquid batteries, some of the top 10 solid state battery manufacturers in China have also turned their attention to solid-state batteries.
It is desirable to take advantage of the inherent characteristics of solid-state batteries. Under the existing conditions, improve battery safety and energy density to solve some problems still faced by power batteries.
Lithium-metal solid-state batteries have a simpler structure and use fewer materials, which provides room for further simplification of the production process. Therefore, from the point of view of material and fixed asset input costs, when solid-state batteries have the capacity to carry out mass production, it is expected to further reduce battery production costs.
Solid state compared to conventional liquid batteries
Compared to traditional liquid batteries, solid-state batteries have great advantages in some aspects, such as:
● High energy density
It can achieve two to three times the energy density of today’s ternary lithium batteries. In other words, under the same conditions, double the cruising range can be achieved in actual use.
● Good safety performance
The solid electrolyte replaces the liquid electrolyte and does not cause electrolyte leakage or internal short circuits. Solid electrolytes can also better inhibit lithium dendrites.
● Strong cycle life
After lithium-ion batteries use a solid electrolyte, the problem of SEI film formed by liquid electrolyte during charging and discharging is solved. The cycle charge and discharge times and service life of lithium-ion batteries have improved. At the same time, because the electrolyte is solid, it solves the problem of battery life declining at low temperatures to a certain extent.
Although the current boom in solid-state batteries is increasing, it is limited to technical performance and cost factors, and there is still a long way to go in the application of energy storage and other fields.
At present, solid-state batteries can be regarded as a direction for the future development of batteries, as an important technical choice for the future development of lithium batteries.